Tag Archives: script

Tip: Test changes while continuing to work

This script below lets you test changes while continuing to work on code. Let’s say that your test suite takes quite a while to run (hello, libguestfs). You can do:

$ test-change make check

The script copies the whole current directory into a temporary directory and runs the check in there. You still have to open a new terminal to run the tests, but the tests can go ahead while you continue working.

#!/bin/bash -
# Copy current directory to a temporary,
# then run the test command on that copy,
# and report the results.
# by Richard W.M. Jones <rjones@redhat.com>
# Usage (from current directory):
#   test-change command [args ...]
# eg:
#   test-change make check

echo "Copying original directory; wait a moment ..."
d=`mktemp -d`

trap "rm -rf $d" EXIT INT TERM QUIT

cp -a . $d

cd $d

echo "Original directory copied, starting test."
echo "You can carry on working now."
sleep 1

# Run the test command.

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Tip: daily Bugzilla reports

This is my inbox, and it sucks:

Bugzilla is like a black hole for bugs. The search tools fail so badly it’s often impossible to find a bug that you were working on the day before. It’s slow, clumsy, and disorganized.

But one bright point is it has a reasonable command line reporting tool also available as a Fedora package. So I decided yesterday to write a Bugzilla report script and have it email me daily from cron.

The starting point is to identify “bugs of interest”. The bugs of interest to me are:

  • bugs I reported
  • bugs I am assigned to fix
  • bugs I’m CC’d on

I put some thought into this set of criteria for bugs:

  1. I should be able to register an interest in any bug: Yes, by adding myself to the CC field.
  2. I should be able to unregister an interest: Yes, by removing myself from the CC, or closing or reassigning those bugs where I’m reporter or assignee.
  3. It shouldn’t tell me about bugs I’m not interested in: Yes, I would be reporter, assignee or in the CC list for any bug related to me or a package I maintain.
  4. It shouldn’t miss out any bugs I might be interested in: Yes, if I’ve ever added a comment, I will be in the CC field at least, and I can always unregister myself from any I no longer care about.

With the command line tool, getting the raw list of bug IDs is very simple.

for flag in -r -c -a; do
  bugzilla query $flag $email -i
done | sort -n -u

(replacing $email with your email address, or even mine if you so care).

That pulls out 781 unique bug IDs, the oldest being one I don’t remember reporting and the most recent being a virt-v2v bug. (Note this includes CLOSED bugs which in the script are ignored).

Now I take the list of bug IDs and pull out the other fields I want from the Bugzilla database. The command below is just an illustrative example of what the script does:

$ bugzilla query -b "86308,601092" \
  --outputformat="%{bug_id}|%{bug_status}|%{product}|%{component}|%{short_desc}" |
  sort -n -t"|"
86308|CLOSED|Red Hat Web Site|Other|Red Hat Command Centre site is down
601092|NEW|Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5|libguestfs|[RFE]Incorrect error msg popped up when missing "-f" in v2v command

As far as I know you have to guess what the %-fields are called. I also had to choose a separator character which wouldn’t appear in any field except the short_desc (which is always the last field), since fields like the product name can and do contain spaces.

The rest of the script is “merely” formatting this whole lot into a nice looking email report:

Bugs in OPEN states:

*** coccinelle ***

  In Fedora:
    502185 coccinelle segfaults on ppc64
    579457 coccinelle-0.2.3rc1 is available

*** e2fsprogs ***

  In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:
    518190 mke2fs -t option in RHEL5 differs vs upstream, leading to confusion


You can download the script here: http://oirase.annexia.org/tmp/bugs-report.ml.txt


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Prebuilt distributions part 3

[This is the final article in a three part series. Read part 1 and part 2.]

In this part I was going to discuss the different installation options, and I’ll give a quick introduction to each at the end. But you know? What I really need is this tool:

| Rich's Amazing Bug Environment Reproducer Tool!        |
| Bugzilla number: # [545116] [ Go ]                     |
|                                                        |
| Preselecting Fedora Rawhide image.  If this is wrong,  |
| choose the right image from the list below:            |
|                                                        |
| [X] Fedora Rawhide (x86-64)                            |
| [ ] Fedora 12                                          |
| [ ] Fedora 11                                          |
| [ ] Ubuntu 9.11                                        |
| [ ] Ubuntu 9.04                                        |
| [ ] Debian 6.0                                         |
| [ ] Debian 5.0    [Download more distributions]        |
|                                                        |
| [X] x86-64   [ ] i386                                  |
|                                                        |
| [Create  virtual machine now]                          |

The Create virtual machine now button must take no more than 60 seconds to deliver the virtual machine, plus maybe another 60 seconds to boot it and give me the login prompt. I can then go in, configure it and reproduce the bug, and snapshot it, so I can go back and test fixes later. (I’d like the snapshot workflow to go through the user interface too, and ponies).

The only approach that doesn’t take ages to install is to have the distributions prebuilt as small disk images locally (as described already in part 2).

Note stuff I don’t want to have to specify: storage, download URLs, VM names, etc etc.

Why doesn’t this exist already, or perhaps it does?

I’d also like to suggest that the resizable disk image should become yet another distribution format that Linux distros provide. Many do already, albeit buried inside a live CD.

As promised, my quick summary of installation methods:


virt-install is a great command line tool for installing new VMs. I have these two commands pretty much permanently in my command history:

# lvcreate -n F13Rawhidex64 -L 10G vg_trick
# virt-install -v -n F13Rawhidex64  --accelerate \
    -r 512 -f /dev/vg_trick/F13Rawhidex64 \
    --cdrom Fedora-12-x86_64-DVD.iso

The commands above lead to a manual installation, but you can also specify a kickstart file, although the syntax for doing this is not obvious and not documented in the manual page.

Nevertheless, even an install from a CD-ROM on the local drive (as in the example above) is a slow process, taking anything up to an hour.


Kickstart is the method used to automate Anaconda installs, ie. installs of all Fedora, Red Hat and derived distributions. It’s a little unwieldy because you have to write a separate kickstart file, then host that on a web server (so the VM can find it), then add a special magic kernel parameter when booting the VM: ks=http://local.example.com/kickstart.ks

I found in the past that it’s better to keep a collection of kickstart files around and iterate them slowly so you can find out what works and what doesn’t.

Also, kickstarts are automatic, but just as slow as manual installation.


Debian’s debootstrap (and the Fedora equivalent I wrote called febootstrap) is, as far as I know, the standard way to install a new Debian instance from an existing Debian instance. Unlike our VM installs above, debootstrap creates a “chroot” directory, and what you do with that directory is then up to you. Usually you would debootstrap into some mounted device. debootstrap is very simple to use and driven completely from the command line.

It’s not particularly fast. Because it downloads, unpacks and installs each package, it can take an hour or more to run.


This is Ubuntu’s wrapper around debootstrap and libvirt/qemu.


Cobbler is a network install server which lets you pxeboot and configure a network of machines (and virtual machines) from a central server. It has lots of wonderful features — go and read the web site.

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Prebuilt distributions part 2

In part 1 I discussed how these days Linux Live CDs usually come with a prebuilt disk image of the distro which is simply copied over to the hard disk during installation. (The “old” method was to rpm/dpkg-install the packages which is much more time-consuming). However my first test wasn’t very successful because I was using the “cp” command to copy files.

Anaconda (the Fedora installer) is smarter than this. It “dd”s the prebuilt disk image to the hard disk and then uses an ext2/3/4 utility called resize2fs to expand it to the correct size.

I changed the previous guestfish script to take this approach.

The new/Anaconda approach is much faster. Our total time is down from over 18 minutes to 2½ minutes (approximately 2 minutes for the “dd”, 2 seconds for the resize2fs, and the rest of the time taken doing the partitioning and LVM creation).

Unfortunately we have to leave Ubuntu behind at this point. Ubuntu ships with a squashfs, and I’m not aware of any way to turn this into an ext3 partition efficiently (except to use “cp” which we showed in part 1 was very slow). The new script only works with Fedora Live CD ISOs.

The new script is after the cut.

Continue reading

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Prebuilt distributions part 1

Previously I took a look at unpacking Fedora and Ubuntu live CDs to find out what’s inside them and to ask the question can we use the prebuilt filesystem image that these live CDs contain to quickly create a Fedora or Ubuntu “all-defaults” virtual machine?

This is my first attempt, and it’s not successful, but it does demonstrate a large and interesting guestfish script doing a non-trivial amount of work.

This script:

  1. mounts the prebuilt filesystem from either a Fedora or Ubuntu live CD
  2. creates a disk image with a 200 MB /boot partition and a single / (root) logical volume covering the remainder of the disk
  3. uses the cp -a command to recursively copy the prebuilt filesystem to the disk

Where it fails is that “cp” isn’t very fast. On my local machine it took 18 minutes to copy all the files across, which means this isn’t a practical “instant install” method. (I didn’t in the end try to boot the final disk image).

In part 2 this week, I’ll look at the approach that anaconda takes: It dd’s the disk image and then runs resize2fs on it to expand it into the available space.

In part 3 I’ll compare this approach to others: virt-install, manual installation, kickstart, cobbler, debootstrap and ubuntu-vm-builder.

The script itself follows after the cut:

Continue reading


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