Tag Archives: luks

nbdkit now supports LUKS encryption

nbdkit, our permissively licensed plugin-based Network Block Device server can now transparently decode encrypted disks, for both reading and writing:

qemu-img create -f luks --object secret,data=SECRET,id=sec0 -o key-secret=sec0 encrypted-disk.img 1G

nbdkit file encrypted-disk.img --filter=luks passphrase=+/tmp/secret

We use LUKSv1 as the encryption format. That’s an older version [more on that in a moment] of the format used for Full Disk Encryption on Linux. It’s much preferable to use LUKS rather than using qemu’s built-in qcow2 encryption, and our implementation is compatible with qemu’s.

You can place the filter on top of other nbdkit plugins, like Curl:

nbdkit curl https://example.com/encrypted-disk.img --filter=luks passphrase=+/tmp/secret

The threat model here is that you can store the encrypted data on a remote server, and the admin of the server cannot decrypt the disk (assuming you don’t give them the passphrase).

If you try this filter (or qemu’s device) with a modern Linux LUKS disk you’ll find that it doesn’t work. This is because modern Linux uses LUKSv2, although they are able to create, read and write LUKSv1 if you use set them up that way in advance. Unfortunately LUKSv2 is significantly more complicated than LUKSv1. It requires parsing JSON data(!) stored in the header, and supports a wider range of password derivation functions, typically the very slow and memory-intensive argon2. LUKSv1 by contrast only requires support for PBKDF2 and is generally far more straightforward to implement.

The new filter will be available in nbdkit 1.32, or you can grab the development version now.

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guestfish -i now decrypts encrypted guests

$ guestfish --ro -i /tmp/encrypted.img
Enter key or passphrase ("/dev/vda2"): ***

Welcome to guestfish, the libguestfs filesystem interactive shell for
editing virtual machine filesystems.

Type: 'help' for help on commands
      'man' to read the manual
      'quit' to quit the shell

Operating system: Fedora release 13 (Goddard)
/dev/vg_f13x64encrypted/lv_root mounted on /
/dev/vda1 mounted on /boot

><fs> 

I was asked yesterday how to use these features direct from the API. The simplest thing is probably to add the guestfish -x option which will trace out all the API calls that guestfish uses, eg:

$ guestfish --ro -x -i /tmp/encrypted.img
add_drive_opts "/tmp/encrypted.img" "readonly:true"
is_config
launch
list_partitions
vfs_type "/dev/vda1"
vfs_type "/dev/vda2"
Enter key or passphrase ("/dev/vda2"): ***
luks_open "/dev/vda2" "***" "luksvda2"
vgscan
vg_activate_all true
inspect_os
[etc]

and you can use the same API calls from your own program.

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More support for Linux encrypted VMs in libguestfs

I added support for creating new LUKS disk images and managing existing key slots.

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libguestfs support for encrypted Linux VMs

Two people asked me in about as many days if libguestfs supports encrypted VMs, so with the help of LUKS I added this feature.

A typical session in guestfish looks like this:

$ guestfish --ro -a encrypted.img
><fs> run
><fs> list-devices
/dev/vda
><fs> list-partitions
/dev/vda1
/dev/vda2
><fs> vfs-type /dev/vda2
crypto_LUKS
><fs> luks-open /dev/vda2 luksdev
Enter key or passphrase ("key"):
><fs> vgscan
><fs> vg-activate-all true
><fs> vgs
vg_f13x64encrypted
><fs> lvs
/dev/vg_f13x64encrypted/lv_root
/dev/vg_f13x64encrypted/lv_swap
><fs> mount /dev/vg_f13x64encrypted/lv_root /
><fs> ll /
total 132
dr-xr-xr-x.  24 root root  4096 Jul 21 12:01 .
dr-xr-xr-x   20 root root     0 Jul 21 20:06 ..
drwx------.   3 root root  4096 Jul 21 11:59 .dbus
drwx------.   2 root root  4096 Jul 21 12:00 .pulse
-rw-------.   1 root root   256 Jul 21 12:00 .pulse-cookie
dr-xr-xr-x.   2 root root  4096 May 13 03:03 bin

Since it’s a little clumsy to use in guestfish at the moment, I hope we can add some convenience commands in a future release.

PS. WTF are dbus and pulseaudio doing creating those files and directories under /?

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