Tag Archives: block devices

nbdkit for macOS

nbdkit, our high performance, portable Network Block Device server has now been ported to macOS. It’s a command line tool and macOS is sufficiently FreeBSD-like that the port wasn’t very hard. It’s relatively full featured, including a large portion of the plugins and filters, a brand new exit-with-parent implementation, and almost all tests passing.

However one larger problem remains (for performance) which is the lack of atomic CLOEXEC when opening pipes or sockets. Linux has pipe2 and accept4. I wasn’t able to find any good equivalent on macOS, and hence most of the time we are limited to serializing some requests that could otherwise run in parallel.

nbdkit already supported Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Haiku and Windows!

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nbdkit new eval plugin and ip filter

nbdkit is our flexible toolkit for building block devices. I just added a couple of new features which will appear in the next stable release, nbdkit 1.18.

Previously I’ve talked on this blog and gave a talk at FOSDEM about how you can write block devices in shell script using nbdkit-sh-plugin. But that requires you to use an extra file for the script. What if opening an extra file is too much work? Well now you can specify the script directly on the nbdkit command line using the new eval plugin.

You can write code like:

nbdkit eval \
       config='ln -sf "$(realpath "$3")" $tmpdir/file' \
       get_size='stat -Lc %s $tmpdir/file' \
       pread='dd if=$tmpdir/file skip=$4 count=$3 iflag=count_bytes,skip_bytes' \
       pwrite='dd of=$tmpdir/file seek=$4 conv=notrunc oflag=seek_bytes' \

which is a complete NBD server / block device backed by a local file. Of course it’s probably easier to use nbdkit-file-plugin for this, but the shell script gives you more control like letting you simulate failures or delays.

The other new feature is connected to a CVE we had earlier this year. CVE-2019-14850 happened because nbdkit used to open the plugin as soon as any client established a TCP connection. For some plugins opening them is quite a heavyweight action (eg. it might mean that the plugin has to establish a connection to a second server). This is before NBD negotiation or TLS had started, and it allowed clients potentially to overwhelm the server with requests even if those clients would not be authorized to connect.

To fix this we delay opening plugins until after the NBD handshake (and thus TLS authentication) has completed. But this in turn meant there was no way for plugins to reject connections early, for example based on IP address. So now I have added a preconnect method which gets runs on first TCP connection and can be used to do lightweight early filtering. There is a new nbdkit-ip-filter which implements simple TCP-wrappers-style allow/deny lists.

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